The Science

The Science

As a global leader in agricultural LED lighting applications, we know how important it is to achieve results while improving animal welfare. That is why we focus on applying photo-biology and optogenetics to develop innovative technologies fueled by research.

ONCE® animal-centric lighting systems go beyond traditional LED technologies by studying the science of light specifically and exclusively for the agricultural market. It is the reason we are so successful at what we do, and why our products complement some of the world’s largest integrators and equipment manufacturers.

The Science is our foundation for success. There are four key components that make a key impact when developing our technology:

  • The Visible Spectrum
  • What is“natural” light
  • Animals See Differently
  • The Influence of Light

The Visible Spectrum

To achieve optimal results with ONCE LED lighting systems, the visible spectrum—electromagnetic radiation is light we can see—should first be understood. Light has similar behavior to an ocean wave. As a result, light is characterized by 2 variables: wavelength and intensity. Wavelength is the distance between the two peaks of a wave and intensity refers the number photons hitting given surface area.

 

The visible spectrum is a small fraction of the many types of electromagnetic radiation that exists. The wavelengths visible to the human eye fall between around 400-700 nm. The longer wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum include infrared radiation, microwave radiation and radio waves. The shorter wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum include, ultraviolet radiation, x-ray and gamma radiation.

 

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation not visible to humans. It has shorter wavelengths than visible light but longer wavelengths than X-ray radiation. UV light covers wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm and is divided into three subcategories:

  • UVA (400 – 315 nm) Visible to fish, insects and birds
  • UVB (315 – 280 nm) Used for vitamin D synthesis
  • UVC (280 – 100 nm) Germicidal radiation used to in the BioShift® UV Chamber to strengthen bio-security. Learn about how UV light sterilization works.

 

Both UVA and UVB radiation pass through the earth’s atmosphere, reaching the surface, but UVC radiation is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer, never completely reaching land.

 

Learn more about light with these additional resources:

There was a time when a morning sunrise gave light and an evening sunset gave night to every living creature—it was considered a natural part of life. But not every day is ideal when commercially raising animals indoors.

 

In the spectrum charts below, daylight at noon, compared to daylight at sunset is compared.

Poultry-Specific

An animals’ natural habitat was meant to be outside—more specifically, the red jungle fowl, an ancestor of the domestic chicken, originated in the rain forests of Southeast Asia. A place where photoperiods are not as drastic and light intensities and spectrum are different when compared to open land areas and many parts of the country. Pecking, nervousness, feed source recognition and hormonal responses may all be seen in chickens outside of their natural habitat, causing increased stress and decreased animal welfare.

 

Swine-Specific

The pig, an ancestor of the Eurasian wild boar, also originated in Southeast Asia but on islands such as the Philippines and Indonesia.

Animals See Differently

You can tell simply by looks that a human eye and the eye of an animal are not the same, so it makes sense that we see color differently. When an animal, like a chicken or pig, sees the same light we see, they perceive something different because they have an entirely different set of photoreceptors.

As you can see in the human eye drawing below, the retina at the back of the eye. This is where photoreceptors are located. The two types of photoreceptors that are directly involved with sight are rods and cones. Rods work at low light levels (i.e. night vision), while cones are stimulated by light and used to see color.

Learn more about the human eye.

Two additional key photosensitive in birds, non-visual, organs are the pineal gland, photon absorption by functional photoreceptors located in the pineal gland on the top of the brain, and hypothalamus reception, photon absorption by deep encephalic photoreceptors.

Knowing that cones are used to see color, humans have three pigment cones (trichromatic vision), poultry have four pigment cones (tetrachromatic vision) and swine have two (dichromatism vision).

How Humans See

Lighting for humans is typically categorized on a white scale, but white light, particularly sunlight, is made of all the colors. Think of a glass prism and how it separates white light into all colors.  If the individual colors are mixed differently, the color of the light we perceive changes.

As humans, we all have the same types of photoreceptors in our eyes and will perceive the same colors. The graph below shows the typical color sensitivity of a human. The smooth white line curve and large peak in the center shows that a typical healthy human eye responds to wavelengths between about 400nm to 750nm humans, and sees green and yellow colors better than they see blue and red. The higher the white line is on a color, the more sensitive the human eye is to that color. Looking more closely, you can see the height of the curve in both the red and blue spectrums are much lower than green, which indicates the human eye is not as sensitive to blue light or red light.

How Poultry Sees

The main difference between the way humans see and the way a typical healthly chicken sees is the fourth cone. Instead of being sensitive to three color wavelengths, chickens are sensitive to four. In the graph below, you can see there are 4 (four) distinct color peaks. The highest sensitivity is green, which domestic fowls see similarly to humans. This is so both species can see well in the available light under green forest canopies, a part of our primary natural habitat. Domestic fowls also have a high sensitivity to blue and red, but you can see another one in the UV spectrum (far left bump on the curve).

A bird processes light information differently, meaning they perceive light from ONCE® AgriShift® LED’s 25% brighter than we do. That is why foot candle measurements with a common light meter do not read the red and blue light spectrum. They measure what humans see, not what poultry see.

Because birds see UV, they experience a richer color landscape. The image below demonstrates how a human would see (on the left), the middle image only shows the UV spectrum and the far-right image shows how another bird would see, therefore color matters.

 

How Swine Sees

In the graph below we see that swine view the world more subdued than humans do. They only see 2 (two) distinct colors, blue and green – with the highest sensitivity being green light. The spectrum drops off significantly before the color red, showing that pigs cannot see that color efficiently.

 

Learn more about how Animals See Different in these additional resources:  

POULTRY-SPECIFIC

Information coming soon!