Poultry Lighting for Improved Performance and Energy Savings
THE SCIENCE OF POULTRY LIGHTING
LED Lighting for Improved Performance and Energy Savings in Poultry Farming
Juliette L. Delabbio, PhD.
Director of Biological Research and Development
Abstract: In poultry farming, artificial lighting is a tool which can, when applied properly, greatly enhance performance and therefore profitability. An artificial lighting system in a barn has three characteristics–color of the light (wavelength), intensity of the light, and the amount of time the lights are on each day (daily photoperiod).
With the development of LED technologies, farmers can now simultaneously vary the color, intensity and photoperiod of the lighting in animal houses and barns. This is important because many scientific studies have demonstrated that simultaneous management of these three components can greatly improve poultry production.
Traditionally, the artificial lighting in a barn has been limited to incandescent, fluorescent or highpressure sodium lamps. These lamps have fixed intensity and fixed color; therefore, once installed the only controllable variable is the length of daily light exposure (photoperiod). With LEDs, two more characteristics of the lighting can be manipulated, thus giving new tools for farmers to increase productivity and improve animal welfare. Indeed, it has been reported that skillful application of LED lighting systems can increase net profit by 20-30%.
Hy-Line; Understanding Poultry Lighting
While peak lux can be assessed at any wavelength, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) standard for measuring light intensity is set at the peak human response of 550–560 nm. Chickens have three photopic spectral peaks, so additional calculations utilizing the poultry-specific peaks are required to measure these clux. Depending on the light source and peak spectrum, clux can be up to 50% or higher in light intensity than lux.
Understanding the difference between lux and clux provides a more accurate selection of light bulbs for the producer and allows them to recognize the limitations of traditional light meters. While using a traditional light meter can be an indicator of light intensity in a house, there will always be a difference between lux and clux.
Light Spectrum Requirements for Egg Production
Light Spectrum Requirements for Egg Production
Gobbles, 70 (4), 6-8, a publication of the Minnesota Turkey Growers Association.
Several studies have been carried out in my laboratory to investigate light spectrum requirements for the enhancement of breeder hen turkeys’ reproductive performance (El Halawani, 2004, 2005, 2006 turkey research reviews CD-ROM; El Halawani, Gobbles 66 (4): 4, 2009). The results showed that the 630 nm wavelength in the red band of the spectrum was superior to the 600, 680 and the 720 nm wavelengths for improving egg production.
The findings that light intensity is an important determinant of breeder hen turkeys’ reproductive performance and the red 630 nm wavelength is proven superior to any other wavelength influencing egg production, we investigated the influence of light intensity provided by the 630 nm wavelength on egg production. The results from this study showed egg production to be essentially similar 4.05, 4.40, 3.95 and 4.28 eggs/hen/week among the four light intensities tested that included 0.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 18.0 foot candles (FC; El Halawani, Gobbles 66 (4): 4, 2009), respectively. Recently, we have identified a group of light sensitive dopamine-melatonin neurons in the turkey brain that appear to be the site of photoperiodic time measurement for reproductive stimulation (Kang et. al., Neuroscience 150: 223, 2007; Leclerc et al., Poultry Science 88 (Suppl.1): 127, 2009; Leclerc et al., J Neuroendocrinol 22: 119, 2010,).
More recently, we also found the photopigment melanopsin to be localized within these neurons (Kang et al., Neuroscience 170: 210, 2010). Melanopsin is a non-visual, blue light (460- 480 nm of the spectrum) photopigment that mediates photo information concerning neuroendocrine and circadian, responses in mammals (i.e. seasonal reproduction, Provencio et al., J Neurosci 20:600, 2000). We hypothesized that the non-visual blue photopigment melanopsin expressed in the turkey brain is concerned with mediating light information related to female turkey reproduction as well as enhancing the stimulatory effects of the long wavelength red light (630 nm) on the reproductive hormone system.
In the present application we propose to refine the blue light wavelength and its relationship to the 630 nm red band on egg production, and to compare these with light spectra programmable light bulbs from Once Innovations, Inc.
LED Lighting for Pullets
Impact of Different Light Sources on Egg Layer Pullet Growth Period
By: Petek Settar, Juliette Delabbio, Ian Rubinoff, Neil P. O’Sullivan, and Jesus Arango
Currently there are different artificial light sources currently used In pullet rearing and layer facilities. Unlike humans, chickens can see UV light and have extra sensitivity to blue and red light due to an extra set of cones in their eyes. Some light emitting diodes (LED) lamps provide a full spectrum of visible light including light output in the UV range and therefore provide a more enriched light environment. Our study investigated the impact of incandescent (INC) and dim to blue 12 Watt LED lamps from ONCE Innovations as a light source, the use of intermittent photoperiods and sunset/sunrise enrichments of the light program for their effects on bird growth performance.